The State of Israel was created in the Land of Israel which was promised to the Hebrew slaves who Moses led out of Egypt, as told in the book of Exodus. It had been promised to them since the days of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Exodus 6:8).
According to the book of Joshua, Israel was established after Canaan was defeated by the Israelites, starting with the city of Jericho, in which the army circled the city for seven days and then blew their horns as God instructed.
For some time, Israel was made up of 12 tribes during the period of Judges, eventually asking God for a king, which led to the anointing and rule of Saul. His reign was short-lived, being conquered by King David (father of and predecessor to King Solomon, builder of the first Temple), whom Jesus was a descendent of.
Jesus Christ’s entire life and ministry took place in Israel, having been born in Bethlehem, raised in Nazareth and being crucified and raised from the dead in Jerusalem.
Israel went through many wars and turnovers of power throughout its history, falling to various other nations including the Philistines, Assyrians and Romans, ultimately leading to the diaspora, when Jews were scattered around the earth.
Eventually, Jewish people began to return to the land that was Israel in the 1800’s and continued to do so, eventually leading to the establishment of the Jewish state, Modern-day Israel, in 1949, led by David Ben-Gurion.
For a more detailed history, expand the different time periods below.